Description of the scale items

The objective of the PRISS scale is to measure the presence of experiences perceived by the patient, as well as their frequency and level of concern and interference in daily life.

The complete scale consists of 28 items related to the symptoms of schizophrenia, which are based on the PANSS scale (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Cuesta & Peralta, 1994). The items are as follows: 1. Delusions of control, 2. Conceptual disorganization, 3. Hallucinations, 4. Excitement, 5. Grandiosity, 6. Suspicion, 7. Hostility, 8. Affective blunting, 9. Poor contact, 10. Social withdrawal, 11. Abstract thought, 12. Lack of spontaneity, 13. Stereotyped thought, 14. Somatic concerns, 15. Anxiety, 16. Feelings of guilt, 17. Tension, 18. Mannerisms and postures, 19. Depression, 20. Motor slowdown, 21. Lack of collaboration, 22. Unusual thoughts, 23. Disorientation, 24. Poor attention, 25. Volition disorders, 26. Poor impulse control, 27. Concern for feelings and emotions, 28. Active social avoidance.

Below is a description of each of the items:

  • ITEM 1. Delusions of control. Unfounded, unrealistic and idiosyncratic beliefs that one’s feelings, impulses, thoughts or actions are under the control of some external force.
  • ITEM 2. Conceptual disorganization. Disorganized thought processes characterized by a break in the sequence of goal-directed thought.
  • ITEM 3. Hallucinations. Auditory, visual and bodily sensory experiences that occur in the absence of any actual external stimuli.
  • ITEM 4. Arousal/ Excitement. Hyperactivity that is reflected through accelerated behaviour, hypervigilance or excessive lability of mood.
  • ITEM 5. Grandiosity. Exaggerated self-esteem and unreal convictions of superiority, power, knowledge, identity or special relationship with a divinity or famous person.
  • ITEM 6. Suspicion. Exaggerated ideas of prejudice without a real basis that show an inclination towards mistrust, distrust and suspicion.
  • ITEM 7. Hostility. Verbal and non-verbal expressions of anger, resentment, insults or aggression.
  • ITEM 8. Affective blunting. Absence or decreased emotional reaction to stimuli (facial expression, feelings and gestures).
  • ITEM 9. Poor contact. Absence or loss/decrease of interpersonal empathy, frankness in conversation, closeness and interest towards other people.
  • ITEM 10. Social withdrawal. Reduced social initiative due to decreased interest in forming or maintaining interpersonal relationships with others.
  • ITEM 11. Abstract thought. Difficulties in making classifications, generalizations and concrete thinking.
  • ITEM 12. Lack of spontaneity. Reduction of the normal flow of communication that is associated with apathy, avolition, defensiveness or cognitive deficit. Less fluidity and productivity.
  • ITEM 13. Stereotyped thought. Decreased flexibility of thought, with a rigid and repetitive content.
  • ITEM 14. Somatic concerns. Intense worries, sensations and behaviours related to somatic disease or dysfunction, including delusions.
  • ITEM 15. Anxiety. Mental state characterized by great restlessness, nervousness and restlessness.
  • ITEM 16. Feelings of guilt. Belief or sensation of having transgressed (real or imaginary) personal or social ethical norms.
  • ITEM 17. Tension. Clear physical manifestations of fear, anxiety and agitation.
  • ITEM 18. Mannerisms and postures. Excess and exaggeration of movements that appear as artificial, forced, disorganized or extravagant postures.
  • ITEM 19. Depression. Feelings of sadness, discouragement, helplessness and pessimism.
  • ITEM 20. Motor slowdown. Reduced motor activity manifested by slowing or diminishing of movement and language, response to stimuli, and muscle tone.
  • ITEM 21. Lack of collaboration. Active refusal to accede to the wishes of others, showing suspicion, defensiveness, stubbornness, negativism and rejection of authority.
  • ITEM 22. Unusual thoughts. Strange, fantastic and grotesque delusions, which can become absurd.
  • ITEM 23. Disorientation. State of mental confusion that leads to a loss of the ability to locate oneself in space and/or time correctly.
  • ITEM 24. Poor attention. Difficulty directing attention as manifested by poor attention span, distractibility, and difficulty sustaining attention.
  • ITEM 25. Volition disorders. Weakening of the will and inability to initiate, maintain and control thoughts, behaviours or movements.
  • ITEM 26. Poor impulse control. Disorder of regulation and control of emotions and behaviour in different situations.
  • ITEM 27. Concern for feelings and emotions. Preoccupation with internally generated feelings and thoughts.ITEM 28. Active social avoidance. Decreased social behaviour that is associated with unwarranted fear, hostility or mistrust.
  • ITEM 28. Active social avoidance. Decreased social behaviour that is associated with unwarranted fear, hostility or mistrust.

Based on the results of the PRISS factor analysis, the items have been grouped into 3 subscales (productive, negative/affective, and arousal/excitement). According to their characteristics of frequency, level of concern and interference in daily life, the items have been distributed as detailed below:

Table 1. Items included in each subscale and their characteristics (frequency, level of concern and interference in daily life).

PRODUCTIVE SUBSCALE
FREQUENCYLEVEL OF CONCERNINTERFERENCE IN DAILY LIFE
1. Delusions of control
3. Hallucinations
5. Grandiosity
6. Suspicion
13. Stereotyped thought
18. Mannerisms and postures
21. Lack of collaboration
22. Unusual thoughts
23. Disorientation
26. Poor impulse control
1. Delusions of control
3. Hallucinations
5. Grandiosity
13. Stereotyped thought
18. Mannerisms and postures
21. Lack of collaboration
22. Unusual thoughts
26. Poor impulse control
1. Delusions of control
3. Hallucinations
5. Grandiosity
6. Suspicion
22. Unusual thoughts
NEGATIVE/AFFECTIVE SUBSCALE
FREQUENCYLEVEL OF CONCERNINTERFERENCE IN DAILY LIFE
2. Conceptual disorganization
8. Affective blunting
9. Poor contact
10. Social withdrawal
11. Abstract thought
12. Lack of spontaneity
15. Anxiety
16. Feelings of guilt
19. Depression
20. Motor slowdown
24. Poor attention
25. Volition disorders
27. Concern for feelings and emotions
28. Active social avoidance
2. Conceptual disorganization
6. Suspicion
8. Affective blunting
9. Poor contact
10. Social withdrawal
11. Abstract thought
12. Lack of spontaneity
15. Anxiety
16. Feelings of guilt
19. Depression
20. Motor slowdown
23. Disorientation 
24. Poor attention
25. Volition disorders
27. Concern for feelings and emotions
28. Active social avoidance
2. Conceptual disorganization
8. Affective blunting
9. Poor contact
10. Social withdrawal
11. Abstract thought
12. Lack of spontaneity
13. Stereotyped thought
20. Motor slowdown
21. Lack of collaboration
24. Poor attention
25. Volition disorders
28. Active social avoidance
AROUSAL/EXCITEMENT SUBSCALE
FREQUENCYLEVEL OF CONCERNINTERFERENCE IN DAILY LIFE
4. Excitement
7. Hostility
14. Somatic concerns
17. Tension
4. Excitement
7. Hostility
14. Somatic concerns
17. Tension
4. Excitement
7. Hostility
14. Somatic concerns
15. Anxiety
16. Feelings of guilt
17. Tension
18. Mannerisms and postures
19. Depression
23. Disorientation
26. Poor impulse control
27. Concern for feelings and emotions
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