Procedure for correction and interpretation of results

The PRISS scale enables the user to obtain several reports of results that are listed below.

On the one hand, the responses indicated by the interviewee can be recorded on the PRISS Scale Scoring Sheet. Thus, the items present can be indicated on the complete scale, as well as with their frequency, the level of concern and [their] interference in the daily life (Annex IIIa).

For the complete scale, the number of items present can be obtained, as well as the total score, the mean total score (in relation to all the items on the scale) and the mean score (in relation to the items present) of their frequency, level of concern and interference.

The average scores (in relation to the items present) obtained can be interpreted as follows for each characteristic.

  • Frequency: Almost never, between 1 and 1.9; Sometimes, between 2 and 2.9; Many times, between 3 and 3.9; Always, 4.
  • Concern: Nothing, 0; Mild, between 0.1 and 1; Moderate, between 1.1 and 2; Serious, between 2.1 and 3; Extreme, between 3.1 and 4.
  • Interference in daily life: Nothing, 0; Mild, between 0.1 and 1; Moderate, between 1.1 and 2; Serious, between 2.1 and 3; Extreme, between 3.1 and 4.

This same interpretation can be obtained for the different subscales and in the different characteristics of the instrument (Annex IIIb).

For a better interpretation of the results, the total mean scores obtained (in relation to all the items on the scale) can be transformed using the following conversion table into their corresponding quartile 1, 2 or 3. The quartiles have been obtained from a sample of 162 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia recruited for the scale validation analysis[1].

TABLE 2. Quartiles corresponding to the mean scores obtained for each subscale and characteristics of the PRISS, in the sample for the validation of the scale

  FREQUENCY (AS)LEVEL OF CONCERN (AS)INTERFERENCE IN DAILY LIFE (AS)
FULL SCALEQ1
Q2
Q3
0.31
0.61
1.12
0.18
0.39
0.83
0.14
0.36
0.79
PRODUCTIVE SUBSCALEQ1
Q2
Q3
0.10
0.30
0.90
0.00
0.13
0.63
0.00
0.20
0.80
NEGATIVE/AFFECTIVE SUBSCALEQ1
Q2
Q3
0.36
0.71
1.45
0.17
0.50
1.06
0.08
0.33
0.94
EXCITATIVE SUBSCALEQ1
Q2
Q3
0.00
0.50
1.00
0.00
0.50
1.00
0.09
0.36
0.91
AS = Average score

   
Annex IIIa.
PRISS Scale Scoring Sheet (complete)

ITEMS PRESENCEa FREQUENCYb LEVEL OF CONCERNc INTERFERENCE IN DAILY LIFEd
1. Delusions of control 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
2. Conceptual disorganization 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
3. Hallucinations 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
4. Excitement 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
5. Grandiosity 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
6. Suspicion 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
7. Hostility 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
8. Affective blunting 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
9. Poor contact 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
10. Social withdrawal 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
11. Abstract thought 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
12. Lack of spontaneity 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
13. Stereotyped thought 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
14. Somatic concerns 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
15. Anxiety 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
16. Feelings of guilt 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
17. Tension 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
18. Mannerisms and postures 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
19. Depression 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
20. Motor slowdown 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
21. Lack of collaboration 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
22. Unusual thoughts 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
23. Disorientation 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
24. Poor attention 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
25. Volition disorders 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
26. Poor impulse control 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
27. Concern for feelings and emotions 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
28. Active social avoidance 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
RESULTS
FULL SCALE   Items 1 through 28 Items 1 through 28 Items 1 through 28
TOTAL SCORE (TS): Sum of the scores of all items ∑ ítems= TS = TS = TS =
TOTAL AVERAGE SCORE (TAS) from all items   TAS = TS/28 = TAS = TS/28 = TAS = TS/28 =
AVERAGE SCORE (AS) based on the items present   AS = TS/∑ ítems = AS = TS/ ∑ ítems = AS = TS/∑ ítems =
aPresence: 0=Not present, 1= Present
bFrequency: 1= almost never, 2= sometimes, 3= many times, 4= always
cLevel of concern: 0= none, 1= mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe, 4= extreme
dLevel of interference in daily life: 0= none, 1= mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe, 4= extreme
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

Frequency: Almost never=1 to 1.9; Sometimes=2 to 2.9; Many times=3 to 3.9; Always=4.
Concern: Nothing=0; Mild=0.1 to 1; Moderate=1.1 to 2; Severe= 2.1 to 3; Extreme=3.1 to 4.
Interference in daily life: None=0; Mild=0.1 to 1; Moderate=1.1 to 2; Severe= 2.1 to 3; Extreme=3.1 to 4.

Annex IIIb. PRISS Scale Scoring Sheet (Subscales)

ITEMS PRESENCEa FREQUENCYb LEVEL OF CONCERNc INTERFERENCE IN DAILY LIFEd
1. Delusions of control 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
2. Conceptual disorganization 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
3. Hallucinations 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
4. Excitement 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
5. Grandiosity 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
6. Suspicion 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
7. Hostility 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
8. Affective blunting 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
9. Poor contact 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
10. Social withdrawal 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
11. Abstract thought 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
12. Lack of spontaneity 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
13. Stereotyped thought 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
14. Somatic concerns 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
15. Anxiety 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
16. Feelings of guilt 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
17. Tension 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
18. Mannerisms and postures 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
19. Depression 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
20. Motor slowdown 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
21. Lack of collaboration 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
22. Unusual thoughts 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
23. Disorientation 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
24. Poor attention 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
25. Volition disorders 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
26. Poor impulse control 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
27. Concern for feelings and emotions 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
28. Active social avoidance 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
PRODUCTIVE SCALE   Items: 1, 3, 5, 6, 13, 18, 21, 22, 23 and 26. Total 10 items Items: 1, 3, 5, 13, 18, 21, 22 and 26. Total 8 items. Items: 1, 3, 5, 6 and 22. Total 5 items.
TOTAL SCORE (TS): Sum of the scores of all items TS = TS = TS =
TOTAL AVERAGE SCORE (TAS) from all items TAS = ___/10 = TAS = ___/8 = TAS = ___/5 =
AVERAGE SCORE (AS) based on the items present   AS = TS/∑ items = AS = TS/∑ items = AS = TS/∑ items =
NEGATIVE/AFFECTIVE SUBESCALE   Items: 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 24, 25, 27 and 28. Total 14 items. Items: 2, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 27 and 28. Total 16 items. Items: 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 21, 24, 25 and 28. Total 12 items.
TOTAL SCORE (TS): Sum of the scores of all items   TS = TS = TS =
TOTAL AVERAGE SCORE (TAS) from all items TAS = ___/14 = TAS = ___/16 = TAS = ___/12 =
AVERAGE SCORE (AS) based on the items present   AS = TS/∑ items = AS = TS/∑ items = AS = TS/∑ items =
EXCITATIVE SUBSCALE   Items: 4, 7, 14 and 17. Total 4 items. Items: 4, 7, 14 and 17. Total 4 items. Items: 4, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 26 and 27. Total 11 items.
TOTAL SCORE (TS): Sum of the scores of all items TS = TS = TS =
TOTAL AVERAGE SCORE (TAS) from all items TAS = ___/4 = TAS = ___/4 = TAS = ___/11 =
AVERAGE SCORE (AS) based on the items present   AS = TS/∑ items = AS = TS/∑ items = AS = TS/∑ items =
Notes

[1] Moreno‐Küstner, B., Fábrega‐Ruz, J., Gonzalez‐Caballero, J. L., Reyes‐Martin, S., Ochoa, S., Romero‐Lopez‐Alberca, C. Cid J, Vila-Badia R, Frigola-Capell E & Salvador‐Carulla, L. (2022). Patient‐reported impact of symptoms in schizophrenia scale (PRISS): Development and validation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 145(6), 640-655.

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